The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), alternating between El Niño and La Niña
events, is the dominant and most consequential climate phenomenon affecting extreme
weather, ecosystems, and agriculture around the world.
Ocean gyres are persistent, large-scale circulation features that give rise to important ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and the Kuroshio current off the east coast of Japan.
The summer of 2019/20 saw devastating climate extremes and bushfires across southern Australia, and changed the national discourse on the role of human-caused climate change in increasing the risk of these impacts.